Coffea Arabica, Cà phê Arabica, (hay cà phê chè – tiếng Việt) có nguồn gốc từ Ethiopia và một số vùng đất lân cận (thuộc vùng Sừng Châu Phi). 

Các cây Arabica đầu tiên được vận chuyển ra khỏi quê hương của nó để đến nước láng giềng Yemen trong thế kỷ 16 – 17. Từ Yemen, cà phê Arabica đã được phân tán ra khắp thế giới. Trong sứ mệnh phân bố này, có hay nguồn gen quan trọng nhất – chính thống nhất của cà phê Arabica đó là:
  • A.Typica, có nguồn gốc từ các cây Arabica rời Yemen và được đưa đến Java – Indonesia ngày nay, thông qua các chuyến hải trình của đế chế Hà Lan lúc bấy giờ.
  • Thứ hai, Cà phê A.Bourbon, bắt nguồn từ các cây cà phê được mang từ Yemen đến đến đảo Bourbon bởi người Pháp.

Cả hai hành trình sử thi này chỉ có sự tham gia của một số lượng rất nhỏ cây cà phê (hoặc hạt giống) vì việc vận chuyển cà phê ra khỏi Yemen trong suốt thế kỷ 16 – 17 này từng bị cấm cản rất nghiêm ngặt.

Giống Arabica Typica

Các giống A.Typica, cùng với người anh em A.Bourbon là một trong những loài C.Arabica quan trọng nhất về mặt văn hóa và di truyền của cây cà phê trên thế giới. Hành trình Typica bắt đầu từ năm 1670, khi những hạt giống đầu tiên ra khỏi Yemen được Baba Budan gửi đến Ấn Độ. Chúng đã tạo ra các đồn điền cà phê ở vùng Mysore được gọi là Malabar tại thời điểm đó. (xem thêm lịch sử cà phê thế kỷ 16-17). Cho đến những năm 1696 và 1699 người Hà Lan đã mang các hạt giống Typica từ bờ biển Malabar của Ấn Độ đến vùng thuộc địa Batavia (ngày nay là Jakarta, Indonesia) trồng chúng trên hòn đảo Java.

Cà phê Typica có tiềm năng chất lượng rất cao và từng được dùng làm chuẩn mực để đánh giá hương vị các loại cà phê khác. Các bạn có thể xem thêm nguồn gốc & đặc điểm cây cà phê Typica để hiểu rõ hơn mức độ quan trọng của giống này.

Giống Arabica Bourbon

Bourbon là tên một hòn đảo ở Ấn Độ Dương, phía đông Madagascar, (nay là Réunion). Những nghiên cứu duy truyền và sử học cho thấy người Pháp đã mang cây cà phê từ Yemen đến đảo Bourbon trong ba lần, vào năm 1708, 1715 và 1718 ; Trong đó chỉ có một số ít các cây con sống sót trong lần thứ hai và lần thứ ba. Cho đến giữa thế kỷ 19, cà phê Bourbon vẫn không rời đảo này. Tùy thuộc vào nhóm phụ cụ thể, cà phê Bourbon có thể có màu đỏ (Vermelho) hoặc vàng (Amarelo).

Những cây Arabica Bourbon thường có lá rộng hơn, quả & hạt tròn hơn so với các cây thuộc giống Typica, đồng thời sản lượng cũng nhiều hơn từ 20-30% so với Typica. Nguồn gốc & đặc điểm cây cà phê Bourbon sẽ trình bày rõ hơn tầm quan trọng của giống cà phê này.

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